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Tuesday, January 29, 2013

CEYLON MALAYS AND ORANG REJIMEN


In the days when imperialists sailed the high seas and in their glory of conquests and subjugations, islands, apart as stopovers for rest and supplies found themselves useful as prisons-at-large or exiles for rebels, convicts, criminals, and trouble makers. Napoleon lost at Waterloo and was condemned to St. Elba. Australia started as a penal colony for convicts.

After the Birch's incident at Pasir Salak, several of the top plotters were sent to Seychelles. Al-Arabi, raised popular uprising against British rule in Egypt and was sent to Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia) quelled revolts by sending many royal dissidents to Ceylon in the 1700's.  They formed the impetus of the settlement of Malay community in Ceylon apart from labourers, runaways, and itinerant sailors.



The Malays, by force or choice settled in an area allocated for them known as Slave Island not far from the fort-cum-port of Colombo (capital) on the coast promontory. They provided the workers and defence for the Dutch and later the British owners of the fort. The latter organised a Malay regiment force which the Malays called  Orang Rejimen.













Member officers and privates of the Orang Rejimen in 1800's are shown below.













As normally the case, the mosque is their centre for religious and communal activities that help retain the Malayness in their culture although infused with Indian and Arabic influences.




Adelaar KA. 1989. Some notes on the origin of Sri Lankan Malay. Kertas dibentang dalam Persidangan Antarabangsa Pengajian Melayu, 21-23 Ogos 1989, K Lumpur

Ahmad Abd Hamid. 1991. Melayu Sri Lanka dan bahasa mereka. Pelita Bahasa 3(8):34-5

Andreas, Nell. 1949. Coming of the Moors to Ceylon. Moorish Culture, Colombo

Azeez AMA. 1960. Ceylon Muslim. Encyclopedia of Islam (new edn), London

Bichsel-Stettler, Anne. 1989. Aspects of the Sri Lanka Malay community and its language. Thesis, Univ Bern

Ferguson AM & J. 1897. Mohammedanism in Ceylon. Colombo (pamphlet)

Gooneratne FE. 1924. The History of the Malays of Ceylon. Jubilee Book of the Colombo Malay Cricket Club, Ceylon Observer Press, pt 2 pp159-65

Goonewardena KW, Dr. 1959. Some notes on the history of the Muslims of Ceylon. Ann Mag Univ Muslim Majlis, Peradeniya pp82-9

Harun Mat Piah. 1986. Tradisi kesusteraan Melayu Sri Lanka dalam konteks kesusteraan Melayu tradisional Nusantara: satu tinjauan khas. Sari 4(2):63-82

Hussainmiya BA. 1976. Exiles no more. Hemisphere (Australia) 26(1):10-4
-1978. Malay manuscripts in Sri Lanka. Indonesia Circle (SOAS London Univ) no 17 pp39-40
-1981. Penemuan teks Melayu di Sri Lanka. Berita Harian 7 Dis 1981
-1982. The rise and fall of Malay literature in Sri Lanka. Paper read at Int Symp Traditional Malay Literature, 4-6 Nov 1982, UKM, Bangi
-1984. Orang Rejimen, the Rejimen people: a study of the Malays of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment, 1800-1893. Dissertation, Peradeniya Univ, Sri Lanka
-1986a. ‘Melayu bahasa’: some preliminary observations of the Malay creole of Sri Lanka. Sari 4(1):19-30
-1986b. Princess and soldiers: the antecedents of the Sri Lankan Malays. In   Shukri (ed) Muslims of Sri Lanka: Avenues to Antiquity. Beruwela, Colombo
-1987a. Syair kisahnya khabar orang wolenter Benggali: a Sri Lankan Malay syair, introduction and text. Sari 5:17-49
-1987b. Lost cousins. The Malays of Sri Lanka. Inst Bahasa, Kesusteraan dan Kebudayaan Melayu, UKM, Bangi, Dunia Melayu Occasional Paper 2
-1987c. Matinya suatu tradisi kesusteraan “pendatang” – kes kesusteraan Melayu di Sri Lanka. Dlm Pertemuan Dunia Melayu ’82. DBP, K Lumpur ms286-96
-1990. Orang Rejimen: The Malays of the Ceylon Rifle Regiment. Penerbit UKM, Bangi 185pp

Jayah, Murad. 1966. Did the Javanese exiles bring their womenfolk? Bull of CEMRO 2(Oct/Nov)
-1967. Saint Tuan Bagoos of Grande Mosque. Bull CEMRO 4(2) (mimeo)
-1969. Deed of gift of Wekande Mosque. Bull CEMRO 4(2)
-1970a. The plight of the Ceylon Malays today. Silver Jubilee Souvenir, Moors Islamic Cultural Home pp70-75
-1970b. Mohamed Murad Jayah, genealogical table. Silver Jubilee Souvenir, Moors Islamic Cultural Home pp132-3

Kekulawala SL. 1979. Kinship terminology in Sri Lankan Malay – a contribution to the study of language universals. Kalyani 1(2):207-24

Mantara CH. 1924. The Malays of Ceylon. Jubilee Book of the Colombo Malay Cricket Club, Ceylon Observer Press, Colombo pt 2 pp165-8
-1970. The Malays and the Sinhalese. Angunawela (Mimeo pamphlet)

Nuhuman MIL. 1959. History of the Colombo Grand Mosque. Committee of Management, Colombo (pamphlet)

Papas, Con. 1975. Sha’er Shaikh Fadlun, a Ceylon-Malay sha’er. BA (Hons) academic exercise, Monash Univ, Australia

Reimers E. 1924. Malays of Ceylon. Jubilee Book of the Colombo Malay Cricket Club, Ceylon Observer Press, Colombo pt 2 pp155-9

Salmah Mohsin. 1985. Wanita Melayu di Sri Lanka. Keluarga, Okt ms22-3

Said HM. 1926. Ceylon Malays. JMBRAS 4(2):266-8

Samat TMG. 1955. The Malay contribution to culture. Sunday Periodical, 15 May 1955
-1959. The Malays – glorious past but what of their future? Sunday Times of Ceylon, Colombo, 7 May 1959
-1962a. Malayan influence on local culture & life. Times of Ceylon, Colombo, 16 Jan 1962
-1962b. An aspect of Malay life on the wane – the dying strains of the panthongs. Ceylon Observer, Sunday edn, 22 July 1962
-1964. Pantuns of the Ceylon Malays. Malayan Times, Sunday 7 June1964
-1968a. Verses of the Malays. Ceylon Daily News, Colombo, 3 May 1968
-1968b. Whence came in the Malays? Ceylon Daily News, 8 July 1968

Sameer, Mohamed. 1966. Ceylon Moors; Malays and other Muslims of the past. Moors Islamic Cultural Home 21st Anniversary Souviner, Colombo

Shukri MAM (ed). 1986. The Muslims of Sri Lanka; avenues to antiquity. Beruwela, Colombo

Singasari. 1959. Bahasa Indonesia & Ceylon Malay. Suara Pemuda Melayu, Jan-July 1959. Ceylon Malay Youth League, Colombo

Suhood, Yahya Dane. 1924. The Malayan race and the Malays of Ceylon. Jubilee Book of the Colombo Malay Cricket Club, Ceylon Observer Press, Colombo pt 2 pp168-72

Sutadhara, Tapovanaye. 1991. Long vowels in Sri Lankan Malay. Linguistics Dept, Univ Hawaii

Syed Abdullah Al Attas. 1907. Kitab Bernama Miftahul Anak Kunci Ibadat. Ceylon Examiner Press, Colombo

Vincit, Veritas. 1924. Ceylon Malays & politics. Ceylon Independent, 20 June 1924.

Friday, January 25, 2013

TERANG BULAN, BULAN TERANG




Dalam suasana kesepian dan samar2 terang bulan si pungguk rindukan bulan.


Ketika bulan terang mengambang ia menghilang diri disangka menjadi harimau jadian.





Lagu Terang Bulan menjadi kontroversi kerana ada mengatakan lagu Negara Ku berunsurkan TB, ada pula mengatakan berunsur lagu Hawaii dan ada pula berkata lagu negeri Perak.

Pernahkah ku mendengar TB? Tidak pasti. Yang pasti ku dengar lagu Oh Mak Bonda putaran piring hitam dimainkan gramophone mak saudara ku setengah abad dulu.

Beng Selamat, pemuzik terkenal Indonesia tahun 30-50an ada mengilhamkan lagu Terang Bulan.


Aktor terkenal Moh Mochtar "Tarzan van Java" atau "Glamour Boy" tahun 30-40an telah berlakun dalam filem Terang Bulan dan lain2 filem.

 

Saturday, January 19, 2013

LILIK MENJELMA DIDEPAN KU


Tanggal 22-23 Dis 09 kami berada di Jakarta. Hendak ke Mangga Dua. Kami menginap di Hotel Alia Cikini.

Anak bongsu ku yang sedang belajar di Bandung sebut masa cuti ia ingin melihat Gunung Berapi Bromo (2392m a.s.l) ke timur Malang. "Ada kawan baik di Malang, lama tak jumpa dia" ku menyahut. Kalau pergi boleh kontak dia, Lilik Setyobudi namanya.












Pagi 23hb aku turun lift. Ramai pula masuk lift kemudiannya. Sesak. Terlihat didepan ku menghadap pintu lift seperti orang yang kenal cam daripada suara dan susuk badannya.

Apabila lift berhenti tingkat lobby, saya menerkam kedepan dan dengan gembiara "Oh, Lilik, what in the world you are doing here? I just thought of you yesterday!" Kami tak sempat bercerita banyak kerana beliau dan kawan2 hendak pergi seminar. Sesungguhnya Allah maha berkuasa.

Lilik peramah orangnya. Dia kerap tegur saya semasa belajar di Oregon pada pertengahan tahun 80an. Ada beberapa orang lagi penuntut Indonesia yang sempat saya kenal - Asril dll.

Pada awal Feb 1991 (22 tahun lalu) semasa bertugas dengan MARDI Cameron Highlands, saya telah (2 minggu) ke balai penelitian dataran tinggi Tlekung, Batu, Malang khas untuk mengenali teknologi tanaman epal di tropika.

Kini, tanaman epal di Malaysia lebih berjaya di Bekalan, Sarawak.



Saya bertemu kembali (selepas 5 tahun balik dari belajar) Lilik berpejabat di Batu dan ia memberi layanan yang cukup baik - memperkenalkan keluarga dan rumahnya (dibena sendiri katanya) serta belanja dinner ayam goreng.

Dr L. Setyobudi kini bertugas di University of Brawijaya, Malang dan menjadi Head, Business Incubator and Public Service.

Selain daripada beliau yang saya terhutang budi ialah penyelidik2 ( Ir Moh Cholil Mahfud, MS, Dedi Djatmiadi, Ir Arry Suprianto, MS, Ir Soenarso, MS, dll) yang bekerjasama menunjukan teknologi hortikultura epal, limau (jeruk), mangga (Pasuruan), anggur (Probolingo).




Terhutang budi juga kapada Pak Arpa'i, pengusaha apel dan tanaman hias, dan pembantunya Pak Sunfiatmodjo.

Selama berada di sana saya menginap di Metropole Hotel, Malang dan Cemplong adalah salah satu restoran saya sukai.




Kapada mereka semua saya ulangi ucapan terima kasih tak terhingga. Allah sahaja dapat membalas budi baik anda.

Andainya Lilik dan teman2 lain datang ke Malaysia jangan tidak beritahu saya ya. Wishing you all the best.

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

BEBEKNYA ENAK SKALI


Malaysia cintakan Bandung. Hari2 kita sebut air bandung atau mee bandung padahal di Bandung tiada minuman atau makanan tersebut! Usah hebohkan perkara ini kapada mereka seberang sana, mana tahu perkataan Bandung udah patent.

Memang para pelancung suka ke Bandung - Jln Dago, Pasar Minggu untuk shopping, Tangkuban Prahu untuk lawatan. Restauran disana pun banyak dan  indah setting, kesenian dan istimewanya, restoran Daun misalnya.

Ayam penyet,  pecal lele (ori?) sudah sampai di sini tetapi bebek gorengnya belum. Bahasa kita  bebek itu itek. We are enriched with food diversity and Malaysia is indeed a food haven.












Industri bebek (Peking duck) di Malaysia hebat untuk eksport khasnya serta membekal keperluan restoran Cina. Penternakan secara besar2an diusahakan dikawasan kolam bekas lombong di Perak terutamanya. Leave it to the Chinese, all things are possible!









Pemandangan di sebuah ladang komersial ternak Peking duck di Siputeh, Perak.

Sunday, January 13, 2013

WHEN RICE WAS DEAD - TRIBUTE TO PIONEERS


The ancient carvings of Borobudur (circa 9th century AD), Java depict millet but not rice. Rice seems to have been introduced to Java by sea from India during the later period of Hindu influence. Rice appears to have been introduced to Java perhaps before the establishment of the Majapahit Kingdom in the 13th century.

From Java,  rice planting spread gradually to the southern Malay peninsula. However, the northern part Malaya, Kedah and Perlis, seem to have adopted wet-rice cultivation somewhat earlier, from the mainland Southeast Asia via Southern Thailand. In the early times wet-rice cultivation flourished in the Songkla region which probably had trade relations with the Cambodian state of Funan.

Early rice development in Malaysia, 1800-1920 - the rice you eat you may not forget (the colonials!):

Anon. 1906. Opening of the Krian irrigation canal. Agr Bull Straits FMS 5:283-6

Arden S. 1903. Encouragement of agriculture among the natives. Agr Bull Straits FMS 2:399-402 (with comments by Ridley HN, 402-5)

Balestier J. 1848. View of the state of agriculture in the British possessions in the Straits of Malacca. J Indian Archipel 2(1):139-50

Barbe. 1850. Agriculture of the Mintra. JIAEA 5:487-8

Barrit NW. 1912a. Rice crop in Malaya. MAJ 1(4), 161
1912b. Report on the field experiments, Kuala Kangsar 1912-13. MAJ 1(9), 317
1912c. Economics of padi planting. MAJ 1(12), 443

Bateson E. 1912a. Padi experiments in Krian. MAJ 1(2),5
1912b. Padi cultivation in Siam. MAJ 1(4), 147
1912c. Padi cultivation in Siam. MAJ 1(5), 197
1913. Padi experiments in Krian. MAJ 2(5), 113
1918. Padi cultivation in North Borneo. Agric Dept Bull No 2, Jesselton

Baumgarten FL. 1849. Agriculture in Malacca. J Indian Archipel 3:707-21

Blagden, C Oho. Early Indo-Chinese influence in the Malay Peninsula. JSBRAS 27:33 (influence of plant vocabularies)
1897. An account of the cultivation of rice in Malacca. JSBRAS 30:286-304 (Romanized by Muhammad Ja’far, tr by C.O.B.)

Brewster EJ. 1896. Report of inspection of the Lower Perak District by the District Magistrate. PGG 9:395-8

Buckland AW. Primitive agriculture. J Roy Anthropological Inst Grt Britain and Ireland 7:2-19

Burkill IH. 1917. The food-crops of the Malay Peninsula and some thoughts arising out of a review of them. Proc 1st Agric Conf Malaya, Kuala Lumpur pp138-53
Clayton RJB. 1919. A memorandum on rice supplies. Agric Bull FMS 7(1):15-27

Clifford H. 1897. A journey through the Malay states of Terengganu and Kelantan. Geog J 9(1):1-37

Coombs GE and Grist DH . 1917. Field experiments with rice. Agric Bull FMS 6(3):159-61

Day FWF. 1918. The water hyacinth as a source of potash. Agric Bull FMS 6(7&8):299-314

Favre P. 1849a. A journey in Johore. JIA 3:50-64
1849b. A journey in the Minangkabau States of the Malay Peninsula. JIA 3:153-61

Gallagher WJ. 1908. Extermination of rats. Agric Bull SS & FMS 7, 522 1909a. Virus remedy against rats. Agric Bull SS & FMS 7, 4
1909b. The extermination of rats in rice-fileds. Agric Bull SS & FMS Special Bull No 5

Graham WA. 1908. Kelantan a State of the Malay Peninsula. Glasgow
1911. Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah, Perlis. Encycl Britannica, 11th edn 17:482-3

Hose ES. 1919. Memorandum on the figures of Malay population in the F.M.S. in relation to padi cultivation. Agric Bull FMS 7(5):320-2

Jack HW. 1919. Experiments with wet rice in Krian. MAJ 8(5)
1920. Notes on harvesting padi and its conversion into rice. Agric Bull FMS 8(1):1-5

Leith G, Sir. 1804. A Short Account of the Settlement, Produce, and Commerce of Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of Malacca. London

Lewton-Brain L. 1911. Padi experiments in Krian. Agric Bull SS & FMS 10, 322
1913. Agriculture in Malaya in 1912. Dept Agric FMS, Kuala Lumpur

Low J. 1836. A Dissertation on the Soil and Agriculture of the British Settlement of Penang or Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of Malacca including Province Wellesley on the Malayan Peninsula …, with … Incidental Observations, etc. Singapore Free Press, Singapore; reprinted as the British Settlement at Penang, Oxford Univ Press, Singapore

Maxwell WE. 1884. The laws and customs of the Malays with reference to the tenure of land. JSBRAS 13:75-220

Mohamed Yusope Mohamed Shariff. 1920. Some insect pests of padi. MAJ 8(3), 187

Morris, Margaretta. 1904. War, agriculture, and religion of the Kayans and the Sea Dyak. Amer Oriental Soc J 25:231-47

Muhammed Ja’afar. 1897a. Darihal Pekerja’an (sic) bersawah di Melaka. JSBRAS 30:285-304 (with a translation into English by Blagden CO)

O’Sullivan AW. 1886. Ceremonies at seedtime. JMBRAS 18:362-5

Pears F. 1901. On the cultivation of rice as a catch crop. Agic Bull Straits FMS 1:391-2

Penney FG. 1881. Some notes upon agriculture in the Settlement of Penang. SSGG 1881:614-6 Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle.
1869. Paddy cultivation in Penang. 18 Sept 1869

Pratt, Harry Charles. 1909a. Padi pests. Agric Bull SS & FMS 8, 426 1909b. Report of Government Entomologist for the year 1908. Agric Bull SS & FMS No 8
1911. Padi cultivation in Kerian. Agric Bull SS & FMS Special Bull No 12 19pp
1912. General notes concerning locusts. MAJ 1(12), 428
1913. Locust pest in Malaya. A short survey and a brief description of its life history. MAJ 2(4), 76

Pratt HC and South FW 1913. Progress report on locust work since June, 1913. MAJ 2(3), 53
_____ and Norris FM de la. 1915. The Malayan locust. Agric Bull FMS No 24

Raja Mahmud Raja Ali. 1920a. Summary of padi returns, Federated Malay States and Straits Settlements and the Non-Federated Malay States for season 1919-1920. Agric Bull Straits FMS 8(2):154-5
1920b. Padi varieties and padi breeding. MAJ 8(3), 164

Rajah Bot bin Raja Jumaat. 1902. Translation of a letter by Raja Bot giving his view on the subject of extending the area of rice cultivation to Sultan of Selangor & Resident-General letter FMS, 22.8. 1902, typescript, CO 273/284 (publ Letter on rice. Agric Bull SS & FMS 1, 582-6), reprinted in Peninjau Sejarah 1(2), 1966

Ridley HN. 1905. The history and development of agriculture in the Malay Peninsula. Agric. Bull. S.S. & F.M.S. 4, 296

Shaw GE. 1911. Papers on Malay subjects: Malay industries, pt 3, Rice Planting. FMS Govt Press, Kuala Lumpur. Reprinted 1926

Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. 1864. Penang rice and coffee growing. 15 Sept 1864
1892. Penang padi cultivation and the state’s resources. 23 Feb 1892 Skinner CJ.
1884. Statement shewing the result of padi harvest in various districts of the Settlement of Penang. SSGG 1884:903

South FW. 1913a. Draft Water Hyacinth Extermination Enactment in Kedah. Agric Bull FMS 2(2), 46
1913, 1913, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918. Report on work on locust destruction. Agric Bull FMS (in various volumes)
1913. Agricultural Pests Enactment No. 13 of 1913. Agric Bull FMS 2(8, 9):203, 220
1914. Enactment to amend “The Agricultural Pests Enactment,” 1913. Agric Bull FMS 3(8), 297
1916-17. Application of the Agricultural Pests Enactment. Agric Bull FMS 5(8, 9), 349

Spring, F.G. and Milsum, J.N. 1918. Cultivation of foodstuffs. Agric. Bull. F.M.S. 6(9):361-73
_____ and _____ . 1919c. Food production in Malaya. Agric. Bull. F.M.S. No. 30

Syed Abdul Rahman. 1906. Opening of the Krian Irrigation Canal. Agric Bull Straits & FMS 5:283-6
1920. Padi cultivation in Pahang. MAJ 8(3):176-8

Uda Samsudin. 1920. Method of controlling rats in rice fields. Agr Bull FMS 8:176-8

Vincent C. 1894. Report on the Krian Irrigation Scheme. Taiping

Wintedt, Richard O. 1917a. The Malay rice cycle. JSBRAS no 75 p51
1917b. A rice ceremony. JSBRAS no 77 p249
( ). Sacrifice at communal rice ceremonies. JMBRAS 3(2):13
1920a. Rice ceremonies in Negeri Sembilan. J Fed Malay States vol9 no 2 pp122-8
1920b. Rice ceremonies in Upper Perak. J Fed Malay States Mus vol 9 pt 2 pp116-21
1929a. The ritual of the rice-field. JMBRAS 7(3) :437-47
1929b. The ritual of the rice-field. JMBRAS 7(3):437-47

Wise DH. 1901. Report on the System of Rice Cultivation practised in Pahang. Printed paper in Ag B.R. Pahang to Res Gen FMS 16.5.1901 (also Cultivation of rice in Pahang. Agric Bull SS & FMS 1:13-9)

Saturday, January 12, 2013

Thursday, January 10, 2013

HOW THE MUSLIMS ARE BLOODIED










Roger Garaudy, French philosopher and Muslim convert (L) said:

Oremesby Goe, British Minister to the colonists, 1938 said:


Dr. Tash on missionary crusade:


Assassinations of leading Muslims:


B.A.B.I.

Monday, January 7, 2013

THE BUFFALO YOU HUSBAND, YOU WON'T RIDE


The buffalo is ubiquitous in Asia including north Australia where it is an introduced species. In the heydays before widespread mechanization, it used to be man's best friend  - as draught animal in the rice field, barter trading, gifts/ dowry, penalty payment, bull fights, fun rides, notwithstanding, of course its meat and hide. It becomes so entwined in the culture of many societies.

It has given rise to the  name Minangkabau. In their N. Sembilan heartland there used to be large acreage of 'padang kerbau' at jungle fringes gazetted as grazing commons for buffaloes. Post-independence, we fail to extend this concept in a systematic manner.

In Perak, herds of buffaloes still roam used the tin mine areas. They were my arch and costly enemy some years ago because they broke into my nature farm destroying new plantings. What made it worst was that the herders cut the barb wire fencing every time to let their buffaloes in. I had given up with the farm and start somewhere else as mentioned in an early post.












The famous Chinese philosopher, Lao Tze sitting on a buffalo playing his flute!











The seladang which resembles the buffalo are not known to interbreed with the latter. However, the former has been crossed with cow to produce selembu, a hybrid which is unfortunately sterile.

The days of the buffaloes are numbered. What a pity. Being hardy, they are adapted for swampy and low lying areas that are otherwise underutilised. Our animal husbandry has failed to commercialise the buffalo for protein supply.




Saturday, January 5, 2013

THE ARAB SPRING IN NUSANTARA


Amran Kasimin. 1986. Perbendaharaan Kata Arab dalam Bahasa Melayu. Penerbit UKM, Bangi

Badrud Duza M and Baldwin CS. 1975. Non-familiar female roles and determinants of female age at marriage: comparative perspective of Tunisia, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Sem Ann Meet Population Assoc of Amer, Apr 1975, Seattle, Washington

Bausani, Alessandro. 1964. Note sui vocabuli Persiani in Malese Indonesiane (Notes on Persian words in Indonesian Malay). Annale dell’ Instituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli, Nuova Serie XIV

Bluhm, Jutta E. 1983. A preliminary statement on the dialogue established between the reform magazine al-Manar and the Malayo-Indonesian world. Indonesia Circle 32 (Nov 1983)

Do Meglio, Rita Rose. 1970. Arab trade with Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula from the 8th to 16th century. In Richards DS (ed) Islam and the Trade of Asia. Oxford Bruno Cassier Oxford and Pennsylvania Press

Engku Ibrahim Ismail. 1985. Pengaruh Syiah-Farsi dalam sastera Melayu. Warisan Dunia Melayu. GAPENA, K Lumpur

Fatimi SQ. 1963. Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Institute, Singapore

Ferrand, Gabriel (ed and transl). 1913-14. Relations de voyages et texts geographiques arabes, persans et turks relatives a l’Extreme-Orient du VIII au XVIII siecles (Arab, Persian, and Turkish travel accounts and geographical texts dating from the 8th to the 18th century relating to the Far East), Documents historiques et geographiques relatives a l’Indo-Chine (Historical and geographical documents relating to Indochina). E Leroux, Paris

Firth, Raymond and Rockhill WW (eds). 1966. Chau Ju-Kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries, Entitled Chu-fan-Chi. Amsterdam

oHamdi Murad. 1996. The Hashemite Jordanian experience and its relations with religion, state, people, Arab nation, Islamic nation and the world. In Mohd Taib Osman and Awang Abdul Latif Ibrahim (eds) Proc Int Sem on Brunei Malay Sultanate, 13-17 Nov 1994, Univ Brunei Darussalam pp689-95

Hisyam Achmad. 1977. Masyarakat keturunan Arab di Pekalongan. Berita Antropologi 10(31):84-103

Hourani, Albert. 1991. A History of the Arab Peoples. London

Hourani CF. 1963. Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early medieval Times. Khayats, Beirut

Imam SA. 1965. Ceylon Arab relations. Souvenir to Commemerate the First 21 Years Moors Islamic Cultural Home, Colombo

oIsmail Hamid. 1982. Arabic and Islamic Literary Tradition with Reference to Malay Islamic Literature. Utusan Publ, K Lumpur 179pp

Lee-Warner G. 1931. Notes on the Hadhramaut. Geogr J 77:209-22

Lutfi Abbas dan Omar Awang. 1979. Kesan pengaruh Islam dan bahasa Arab ke atas Bahasa Melayu. Dlm Hamdan Hassan (ed) Islam dan Kebudayaan Melayu. Utusan Publ, K Lumpur

Mahayudin Yahaya. 1980. Latarbelakang sejarah keturunan Sayid di Malaysia. Dlm Khoo Kay Kim (penyt) Tamadun Islam di Malaysia. Pers Sejarah Malaysia, K Lumpur

Marrison GE. 1951. The coming of Islam to the East Indies. JMBRAS
1955. Persian influence in Malay life. JMBRAS

Meglio, Rita R. 1970. ‘Arab trade and the Malay Peninsula’. In Richard DS (ed) Islam and the Trade of Asia. Cornell Univ Press

Mills JV. 1974. Arab and Chinese navigators in Malaysian waters in about AD1500. JMBRAS 47(2)

Mohammad Aboulkhir Zaki (MA Zaki Badawi). 1965. Modern Muslim Thought in Egypt and Its Impact in Malaya. PhD thesis, Univ London

Mohammad Redzuan Othman. 1994. The Middle Eastern influence on the development of religious and political thought in Malay society, 1880-1940. PhD thesis, Univ Edinburgh 307pp (unpubl)
1995. The Ottoman’s War with the Europeans (1912-1914): a paradigm shift in the development of Malay political thought. Jebat 23:89-96
1997. Arab political activities and colonial reactions in Malaya before World War II. Royal Inst Linguistics and Anthropology, 8-12 Dec 1997, Leiden (Unpublished paper)
1998. al-Afghani’s Pan-Islamic ideas and the Turks’ appeal: perceptions and influence on Malay political thought. Paper presented at Int Conf on Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and the Asian Renaissance, 23 Feb 1998

Morley JAE. 1949. The Arabs and the eastern trade. JMBRAS vol XXII, pt 1, pp143-76

Muhammad Bukhari Lubis. 1987. Pujangga Arab. DBP, K Lumpur 241ms

Nabir Abdullah. 1987. Turki dan Alam Melayu: tinjauan terhadap sejarah hubungan keduanya. Jebat bil 15

Omar Farouk Shaeik Ahmad. 1975. The Arabs in Penang. Res paper, Dept Hist, UM
1978. The Arabs in Penang. Malaysia in History XXI(2):1-16

Omar Awang. 1969. Studies on two Arabic sources of Shari’ah thought in Malaya. Tesis Sarjana Sastera, Pusat Pengajian Islam, UM
o1981. The major Arabic sources which determined the structure of Islamic thought in the Malay Archipelago before the nineteenth century A.D. in the field of law theology and Sufism. Dlm Lutpi Ibrahim (peny) Islamika: Esei-esei Sempena Abad ke 15 Hijrah. Sarjana Enterprise K Lumpur pp80-5

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Thursday, January 3, 2013

UNGKU AZIZ - THE MAN THAT TIME FORGOT


Ungku Aziz debunked the lazy native connotation.


At work at Pantai Morib.

Working closely with Prime Ministers.






Setting up Lembaga Tabung Haji, Kooperatif Nelayan, Angkasa ...


His writings:

1951. Some aspects of the Malayan rural economy related to measures for mobilizing rural savings. United Nations, New York

1957. Survey of five villages in Nyallas. U.M.
1962. Facts and fallacies about the Malay economy in retrospect with new footnotes. Ekonomi Dec 1962
1963. Rencana-rencana Ekonomi dan Kemiskinan. Pustaka Melayu, Singapura
1964. Poverty and rural development in Malaysia. Kajian Ekonomi Malaysia, 2, 7
1965. Poverty, proteins and disguised starvation. Kajian Ekonomi Mlaysia 2(1)
1968. Agricultural development and economic development in Malaysia. In: The Structure and Development of Asian Economics. Japanese Econ Res Centre, Tokyo
1974. Footprints on the sands of time: the Malay poverty concept over 50 years from Za’aba to Aziz and the Second Malaysia Five Year Plan. Paper presented at Malaysian Economic Convention, K Lumpu