Follow by Email

Saturday, April 30, 2011

THE RAPE OF TELUK RUBIAH?

 Teluk Rubiah, a cosy, tranquil cove not far from Setiawan.
The resort project was built perhaps during MB Ramli Ngah is now abandoned.


Numerous delipidated 2 storey wooden bungalows and unkept golf course.

Millions had been spent on the project. What when wrong with the investment that failed? My guess is that it was meant to be an exclusive holiday niche for the rich. A cleared site for their holiday homes now full of lalang.

Designed for exclusiveness for the elites Tlk Rubiah was not promoted for public use and thus little income. The elites would frequent the resort at their whims and fancy for there are other places of choice to wallow.

The guard told me that the abandoned resort has been leased to a Brazillian company for an iron/steel mill. A jetty reaching far out into the sea is being built. Why build an environment polluting heavy metal in such a beautiful nook? Why not somewhere near to transportation route but away from peole? Even if the guard's statement was not true, Teluk Rubiah has been wronged.

An idyllic hideaway, heaven on earth, gift of Allah to earth beings will be soon gone, unless and unless the MB decide otherwise.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

TEMPOE DOELOE* NASIONALISME MENGGUGAT

*1982. Tempoe doeloe: Antologi Sastra pra-Indonesia. Hasta Mitra, Jakarta

Paradigma perjuangan politik Malayu ialah untuk agama dan bangsa. Dr Mahathir dalam blog Che Det mengatakan para nasionalis dalam perjuangan politik untuk mencapai kemerdekaan tidak abaikan perjuangan agama. Ramai terutamaya generasi baru tidak mengetahui siapa mereka para nasionalis tersebut.

Dizaman silam dimana kaedah komunikasi tidak meluas seperti sekarang mereka menggunakan strategi "Lidah pena lebih tajam dari mata pedang" sebab itu mereka banyak menulis. Inilah diantara bahan yang boleh kita mendalami pengorbanan dan pemikiran mereka. William Roff#, Prof of History, Columbia University banyak menulis berkenaan nasionalisme Melayu.

Untuk meninjau pengorbanan beberapa nasionalis terkenal berikut adalah beberapa gambar dan penulisan mereka yang dipetik daripada bibliografi Nusantara yang sedang saya siapkan.




Peoples' Action Party (PAP) atau PETIR (Parti Tindakan Rakyat) ditubuhkan November 1954. A. Samad Ismail (lahir 1924, Singapura) founder member. Singapura akan mengundi pada 7 Mei ini dan laman blog Op Ed http://remgold.blogspot.com ada maklumat berkenaan.


Cebisan daripada Bibliografi Nusantara:

Abdul Aziz Ishak - lahir 1914, Singapura; Presiden GERAM (Gerakan Angkatan Muda)
1959. Katak Keluar dari bawah Tempurong.

Abdul Rahim Kajai. 1930. Cheritera Dhu’l-Ruhain. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1931. Akal pengetahuan dengan adat datuk nenek. Saudara, 4 April 1931
__ . 1932. Adakah kita sesuai bergaul dan sama-sama hidup dengan Malayan. Majlis, 15 Ogos 1932
__ . 1933. Taatkan Raja. Majlis, 2 Mac 1933
__ . 1941. Panduan Wartawan
__ . 1949a. Pesaka Kajai,: Kumpulan Cerita-cerita Pendek Karangan Allahyarham Abdul Rahim Kajai, Pengarang Melayu yang Terkenal. Qalam Publishers, Singapore, Penggal 1-4
__ . 1949b. Pak Lacok. Qalam Publishers, Singapore

Abdul Latiff Abu Bakar. 1979. Pemikiran Abdul Rahim Kajai sebagai seorang wartawan dari tahun 1930 hingga 1935. Tesis M.A., Jab Sejarah, UM K Lumpur

Ahmad Boestamam (Abdullah Sani b. Raja Kecil) - lahir 1920, Behrang Ulu; Angkatan Pemuda Insaf (API,barisan pemuda MNP ditubuhkan 17 Feb 1946, slogan "Kemedekaan Melalui Darah, diharamkan British Julai 1947)
__ . 1946. Testament Politik API. K Lumpur
__ . 1971. Gerakan nasionalisme di Malaysia. Dewan Masyarakat, K Lumpur
__ . 1972a. Dr. Burhanuddin Putera Setia Melayu Raya. Pustaka Kejora, Kuala Lumpur
__. 1972b. Merintis Jalan ke Punchak. Penerbitan Pustaka Kejora, K Lumpur

Gordon, Alijah (Shirle). 1963. Pondok and our peasantry. Intisari II(1):32-3
__ . 2001(ed & ann). The Propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay Archipelago. Malaysian Sociological Research Inst (MSRI), K Lumpur 472pp
__ . 1999(ed). The Real Cry of Syed Shaykh al-Hady. MSRI, K Lumpur 369pp

Burhanuddin Mohammad Noor al-Hemy, Dr. Presiden MNP (Malay Nationalist Party
__ . 1930a. Asuhan Kesihatan. Persama Press, Penang
__ . 1930b. Mutu Kerajinan. Muhammad Ali b Muhammad al-Rawi (Persama Press), Penang; transl of original in English by Dick Whittington
__ . 1946. Perjuangan Kita, 17 Oct. 1945 – 17 Oct. 1946. Parti Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya, Singapura
__ . 1947. Kursus Ugama dan Politik. Buana, Singapura
__ . 1955. Sejarah Perjuangan Kita. United Press, Penang
Ramlah Adam. 1996b. Burhanuddin Al-Hemy: Suatu Kemelut Politik. DBP, K Lumpur
2004. Biografi Politik Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra. Dawama, K Lumpur

Ibrahim Yaakob (Iskandar Kamel Agastja semasa berada di Indonesia) - menubuhkan KMM (Kesatuan Melayu Muda) bersama Boestamam
__ .1948. Sedjarah dan Perjuangan di Malaya. Nusantara, Jogjakarta
__ . 1951. Nusa dan Bangsa Melayu. Djakarta
__ . 1957. Sekitar Malaya Merdeka. Kesatuan Malaya Merdeka, Djakarta
Abdul Latiff Abu Bakar. 1981. Ibrahim Hj. Yaakob: kegelisahan dan impian seorang pejuang Melayu. Imej dan Cita-cita (Kumpulan Kertas Kerja Hari Sastera 1980), DBP, K Lumpur
Bachtiar Djamily. 1985. Ibrahim Yaacob Pahlawan Nusantara. Pustaka Budiman, K Lumpur

Ishak Haji Muhammad (Pak Sako) - Presiden MNP selepas Burhanuddin
__ . 1937. Putera Gunung Tahan. Geliga Press, Singapura; repr Jamaliah Press, Johor Bahru 1938; repr Pustaka Budaya, Petaling Jaya 1973
__ . 1940. Doli – bidadari dari Shanghai. Utusan Zaman, 7 Sept 1940
__ . 1941. Anak Mat Lela Gila. Annies Printing Works, Johor Bahru; repr Federal Publ, K Lumpur
__ . 1946. Bersatu-lah Sekarang. Annies Printing Works, Johor Bahru

Pramoedya Ananta Toer. 1947. Keranji-Bekasi Jatuh. The Free Voice of Indonesia
__ . 1950a. Perburuan. Balai Pustaka
__ . 1950b. Keluarga Gerilya. Pustaka
__ . 1950c. Subuh. Pembangunan
__ . 1950d. Mereka yang Dilumpuhkan. Balai Pestaka, Jakarta
__ . 1982. Tempoe Doeloe: Antologi Sastra pra-Indonesia. Hasta Mitra, Jakarta

#Roff, William R. 1962. Kaum Muda – Kaum Tua: innovation and reaction amongst the Malays, 1900-1941. In Tregonning, K.G. (ed) Papers on Malayan History. First Int Conf South-East Asian Historians, Singapore, 1961 pp162-92
__ . 1966. The life and times of Haji Othman Abdullah. Peninjau Sejarah 1(2)
__ .1967. The Origins of Malay Nationalism. Yale Univ Press, New Haven and London 297pp
__ . 1968. The Persatuan Melayu Selangor: an early Malay political association. JSEAH 9
__ . 1970. Indonesia and Malay students in Cairo in the 1920s. Indonesia 9 Apr 1970
__ . 1974. Kelantan: Religion, Society and Politics in a Malay State. OUP, K Lumpur
__ . 1975. Nasionalisma Melayu. UM Press, K Lumpur

Syed Shaykh al-Hady. 1925-6. Hikayat Faridah Hanum, atau Setia ‘Ashek kepada Ma’ashoknya. al-Aminiyyah Press, Penang 2 jld; ed 2, 1927-8, Jelutong Press, Penang; ed 3, 1950, Qalam, Singapore 4 jld; ed 4, 5, 6, in romanised Malay now titled Faridah Hanom, 1964, 1965, 1985, Pustaka Antara, K Lumpur
__ . 1928a. Hikayat Taman Chinta Berahi, atau Mahir Afandi dengan Iqbal Hanum. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1928b. Cherita Rokambul dalam Jail dan di Paris. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1928-9. Hikayat Anak Dara Ghassan, atau Hindun dengan Hammad. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1929a. Hikayat Chermin Kehidupan. Jelutong Press, Penang.
__ . 1929b. Hikayat Puteri Nur ul ‘Ain, atau Bahaya Bercherai Talak Tiga dan Berchina Buta. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1929c. Cherita Rokambul dengan Puteri Russia yang ‘Ashek. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1930. Alam Perempuan. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1931a. Perbendaharaan Rumah Tangga Bahagian Suami Isteri. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1931b. Cherita Rokambul atau Peperangan di antara Kebajikan dan Kejahatan di dalam Kehidupan Manusia. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1932. Cherita Rokambul dengan Malium Kaum Nor. Jelutong Press, Penang
__ . 1933. Hadiah Kebangsaan dan Umat Melayu dengan Masharakat. Syed Shaykh b Ahmad al-Hady, Penang

Saturday, April 23, 2011

NAK KU KENAL NUSANTARA

Wow! 40,000 naskhah buku “A Doctor in the House” dijual dalam sekelip mata. Bermakna koleksi penebit RM400,000 dan @ 10% daripadanya untuk royalti penulis. Lapan tahun Dr Mahathir menulis memoir itu bukan sebab wang tetapi untuk pengajaran, tauladan dan pesanan kapada rakyat dan generasi akan datang. Banyak buku beliau telah tulis. Ada masa ya! Memang tak boleh celen dia dalam banyak perkara lagi..


Kerja membukukan bibliografi agak mudah tetapi makan masa dan agak membosankan . Sebab itu jarang2 yang sanggup membuatnya. SAVE telah menerbitkan tiga buah buku bibliografi. Pasarannya khas kapada perpustakaan pengajian tinggi kerana keperluan bahan rujukan untuk penyelidikan.

Nak publisiti lah sikit! Selain daripada itu SAVE ada blogsite khas (kena update) untuk buku. http://bookmana.blogspot.com


Apa sal bibliografi? Kata Napoleon Bonaparte (ada buku/bukti mengatakan ia masuk Islam semasa memerintah Mesir):

“… a special school of history and the student initially would take a course in bibliography a young man, instead spending months wondering around in inadequate or unreliable readings, would be directed to the best work and would more easily and quickly attain better instruction.”

SAVE sedang menyiapkan bibliografi berkenaan Nusantara. Dekat 400 muka dah. Nak cari penulis preface dan sponsor untuk diterbitkan. Berikut secebis berkenaan pengembangan Islam ke/di Malaysia sebelum 1800.


Batu Bersurat Terengganu

“Maka titah Seri Paduka Tuhan mendudokan tamra ini di-banua Trengganu adi-pertama ada Juma’at di-bulan Rajab di-tahun Saratan di Sasankala Baginda Rasul Allah telah lalu tujoh ratus dua”.

[When commanded Sri Paduka Tuhan setting up “copper” (i.e. edict) this in (the) land (of) Trengganu for the first time, (it) was (the day of ) congregation (i.e. Friday) in (the) month (of) Rajab in (the) year (of) Cancer in (the) religious era (of) Prince Prophet (of ) God after passing seven hundred (&) two (i.e. 702)]
(Rujuk: Fatimi, S.Q. 1963. Islam Comes to Malaysia. MSRI, Singapore)

A. Mubin Sheppard. 1957. Emperor Yung Lo and Admiral Cheng Ho. In Malaya in History III(2):114-5

Abdul Rahman Abdullah. 1989. Islam dalam Sejarah Asia Tenggara Tradisional. Penerbitan Pena, K Lumpur
____ . 1990. Pemikiran Umat Islam di Nusantara: Sejarah dan Perkembangannya hingga Abad ke-19. DBP, K Lumpur 235ms

Alijah Gordon (Shirle). 2001(ed & ann). The Propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay Archipelago. Malaysian Sociological Research Inst (MSRI), K Lumpur 472pp

Andaya, Barbara Watson. 1992. Religious developments in Southeast Asia, c. 1500-1800. In Tarling, N. (ed) The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia From Early Times to c. 1800. Cambridge Univ Press vol 1

Blagden, C.O. 1924. A note on the Terengganu inscription. JMBRAS 11(III):258-63

Blasdell, R.A. 1942. How Islam came to the Malay Peninsula. MW XXXII(2):113-24

Ceasar Adib Majul. 1964. Theories of the introduction and expansion of Islam in Malaysia. Siliman J, Fourth Quarter

Evangelista, O.L. 1971. Some aspects of the history of Islam in Southeast Asia. SJ Second Quarter pp180-9

Fatimi, S.Q. 1963. Islam Comes to Malaysia. Malaysian Sociological Research Inst, Singapore 100pp; Shirle Gordon (ed)

Ferrand, Gabriel (ed and transl). 1913-14. Relations de voyages et texts geographiques arabes, persans et turks relatives a l’Extreme-Orient du VIII au XVIII siecles (Arab, Persian, and Turkish travel accounts and geographical texts dating from the 8th to the 18th century relating to the Far East), Documents historiques et geographiques relatives a l’Indo-Chine (Historical and geographical documents relating to Indochina). E Leroux, Paris

Gibb, H.A.R. 1958. The Travels of Ibn Batutta, AD1325-1354 (transl from C.D. Defremery and B.R. Sanguinetti). Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge. (The 1929 title was Ibn Batutta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1324-54. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, London)

Graaf, H.J. de. 1970. South-East Asian Islam to the 18th century. In The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge Univ Press

Hsu Yun-Ts’iao. 1967. Notes relating to Admiral Cheng Ho’s expedition. JMBRAS XLIX(I):124-40

Huang Yao Chieh. The Great Mariner Zheng He (600th Anniversay of His Voyages to the West). TCZ Studio, Singapore

Ibnu Battutah. 1929. Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-54. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London (trans H.A.R. Gibb)

Ismail Hamid. 1986. Perkembangan Islam di Asia dan Alam Melayu. Heinemann (Malaysia), K Lumpur

Jayaudin Janaudin dan Ruziatul Adibah Adnan. 1991. Sejarah Islam: India-Nusantara-China. Penerbitan Elman, K Lumpur

Johns, A.H. 1957. Malay Sufism as illustrated in an anonymous collection of 17th century tracts. JMBRAS 30(2):3-11

Mansor Abdul Kadir. 1975/76. Kitab Mir’at al-Tullab oleh Syaikh Abdul Rauf Shi’ah Kuala (1615-1639). Latihan ilmiah Fak Pengajian Islam, UKM

Masgun. 1990. Sam Po Kong alias Muhammad Ma Ho Muslim dari Cina. Pelita, Jakarta 28 Okt

Marrison, G.E. 1951. The coming of Islam to the East Indies. JMBRAS XXIV:28-37

Mohd Mokhtar Shafi. 1980. Batu nisan kurun 5/10 di Pekan, Pahang. Dlm Tamadun Islam di Malaysia, Pers Sejarah Malaysia
____ . 1979. Sejarah kedatangan Islam ke Pulauan Melayu. Diskusi Ogos/Sept

Morley, J.A.E. 1949. The Arabs and the eastern trade. JMBRAS vol XXII, pt 1, pp143-76

Muhammad ‘Uthman El-Muhammady. 1984/85. Persuratan Islam di Nusantara: satu nota ringkas, Syeikh Nuruddin al-Raniri dan Raja Ali Haji dalam pensejarahan Melayu. Monograf Sejarah no 1

Obaidellah Mohamad. 1994. Meng Zi. DBP, K Lumpur 299hlm (terj)

Omar Awang. *1981. The major Arabic sources which determined the structure of Islamic thought in the Malay Archipelago before the nineteenth century A.D. in the field of law theology and Sufism. Dlm Lutpi Ibrahim (peny) Islamika: Esei-esei Sempena Abad ke 15 Hijrah. Sarjana Enterprise K Lumpur pp80-5
1985. The Terengganu inscription as the earliest known evidence of the finalization of the Jawi alphabet. In Lutpi Ibrahim (ed) Islamika III. DBP, K Lumpur

Othman Mohammad Yatim. 1988. Batu Aceh: Early Islamic Gravestones in Peninsular Malaysia. Mus Assoc Malaysia, K Lumpur
____ dan Abdul Halim Nasir. Epigrafi Islam Terawal di Nusantara. Dewan Kajian Bahasa Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, K Lumpur

Reinaud, Joseph Toussaint (ed). 1845. Relations des voyages faits par les Arabes et les Persans dans l’Inde et a la Chine dans le XIIe si├Ęcle de l’ere chretienne (Accounts of voyages made by ‘Arabs and Persians in India and China in the 12th century AD. Imprimerie Royale, Paris 2vols, being a translation of Akhbar as-Sin wa’l-Hind: relation de la Chine et de l’Inde, redigee en 851 (The Chinese and Indian Report: Relation of China and India, written in 851) by Sauvaget J, Les Belles Lettres, Paris
____ . 1848. Geographie d’Aboulfeda, Introduction generale a la geographie des Orientaux (Geography of Abu l-Fida, general introduction to the geography of the Orientals). Paris

Sayyid Qudratullah Fatimi. 1961. The rule of China in the spread of Islam in South-East Asia. Paper read at The First Int Conf South-East Asia Historians, 16-22 Jan pp1-55

Sedjono Dirdjosisworo. 2006. Laksamana Armada Zheng He: Syahbandar Agung Haji Muhamad Cheng Ho Penabur Benih Perdamaian dan Kerja Sama International. CV Utomo, Bandung, Indonesia

Syed Muhammad Naguib al-Atas. 1969. Preliminary Statement on a General Theory of the Islamisation of the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago. DBP, Kuala Lumpur

Tibbetts, G.R. 1957. Early Muslim traders in South-East Asia. J.M.B.R.A.S. vol. XXX, pt. 1, pp1-44
____ . 1979. A study of Arabic Texts Containing Material on South-East Asia. EJ Brill, Leiden & London

Wan Hussein Azmi. 1975/76. Kedatangan dakwah Islamiah ke Malaysia. Jihad jld 3
____. 1980. Islam di Malaysia: kedatangan dan perkembangan – abd 7-20M. Dlm Tamadun Islam di Malaysia. Persatuan Sejarah Malaysia, K Lumpur

Wan Mohd Shaghir Abdullah. 1999. Penyebaran Islam & Silsilah Ulama Sejagat Dunia Melayu. Persatuan Pengkajian Khazanah Klasik Nusantara & Khazanah Fathaniyah, K Lumpur 51hlm

Winstedt, Richard O, Sir. 1917. The advent of Muhammaddism to the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. JMBRAS 77

Xiang Da (ed). 1961. Zheng He hanghai tu (Map of Zheng He’s Sea-Voyages). Zhonghua shuju, Beijing

Yahaya Abu Bakar.1978. Kesultanan Melayu Melaka : Satu Kajian Mengenai Kedatangan, Penerimaan dan Penyibaran Ugama Islam (tahun Masehi 1400-1511). Tesis Sarjana Sastera, UKM
____ . 1982. Kemasukan Islam ke Melaka dan penyebarannya. J Sejarah Melaka ms7-23
____ . 1983. Melaka : pusat Islam abad kelima belas Masihi. J Inst Bahasa, Kesusteraan dan Kebudayaan Melayu, SARI 1(1) :31-56

Yusuf Chang. 1988. The Ming Empire: patron of Islam in China and Southeast Asia and West Asia. JMBRAS 61(2):1-44

Yusuf, S.M. 1955. Al-Ranaj: Arab navigation in the Bay of Bengal and the Gulf of Siam in the third and fourth century A.H. Islamic Culture (Hyderrabad) XXIX(1-4):77-103

Zubir Usman. 1976. Melaka pusat perkembangan Islam di Tenggara Asia. J Sejarah Melaka bil 1

Tuesday, April 19, 2011

MASIH KU MINAT DIA

Awal tahun 1979 baru balik belajar luar negeri. Idealistik dan romantik.

"Saya nak kerja kat Fraser's Hill Dato'" saya berterus dengan Dato' Mohd Noor, Pengurus Besar FIMA di pejabatnya, KL. (7 tahun sebelum dia tanya samaada main rugby atau tidak dalam temuduga nak masuk Kolej Pertanian. Ya, saya kata tapi satu hapah pun tak tahu fasal rugby!)

"Ok, I give you a blank cheque," sambutnya. Saya pulak tergagap, tak jadi ambil cabaran. Ada kontrak dengan MARDI hati berbisik.


Dua hari sudah holiday ke Fraser's Hill dan jengok tempat hendak kerja 22 tahun dulu. Kini penuh dengan rumput seperti gambar. Dulunya FIMA ada projek hidroponik tanam rock melon.

Dulu, dulu lagi kawasan yang terletak hampir dengan Jeriau Waterfalls telah dibina pada tahun 1931 dan dinamakan Government Dairy Farm oleh pihak Pertanian, Straits Settlement and Federated Malay States. Pengurus pertama ialah F.S. Banfield. Antara lain, mereka memelihara 26 ekor lembu tesusu Freisan dari Durban, Afrika, lembu Jersey, ayam Rhode Island Red (30 ekor) dan Light Sussex (12). Selain daripada itu menguji sayuran kubis, kentang, tomato dll dan buah2an seperti strawberi dan raspberi.

Saya teruja nak cuba turn aound kawasan kerana ada pengalaman dengan tanaman subtropika dan temperat semasa bertugas dengan MARDI Cameron Highlands. Kalau Mat Saleh boleh buat mengapa tidak kita? "Boleh bincang dengan Pengurus Besar Pebadanan di Kuantan" kata pegawai. Kalau diberi package yang sesuai nak kah habiskan masa tua kat 4000kaki diatas permukaan laut?


Udara nyaman dan pemandangan indah.





Banglo Clifford masih indah tersergam.



Perjalanan naik dari Kuala Kubu Baru ke FH melalui ampangan baru bagi reservoir yang meluas.



Sayangnya, pekan Kuala Kubu yang bersejarah itu telah menjadi 'the most disorganised town in Malaysia'.

Sunday, April 17, 2011

KU KUNCI MULUTNYA

Dada mesti berisi sebelum merantau kata orang2 dulu zaman datuk nenek kita. Handal orangnya kalau tak lot ( kebal ) senjata atau peluru. Siapa berani menguji ilmunya. Banyak simpan ilmu badan panas. Tiap guru tidak akan menurunkan semua ilmunya kapada murid takut berlaku derhaka. Oleh itu pengetahuan ilmu tidak mengembang malah menguncup. Tabiat ini turut merangkumi lain2 ilmu seperti silat, berniaga, masakan. Ini menjadikan kita tidak progressif.
Pak Itam ada sampaikan ilmu supaya orang suka terutamanya perempuan tetapi tidak saya amalkan. Arwah abang saya, askar ada menuntut ilmu kebal. Memang dia berani berbulan di Betong, sempadan Siam sana, menghendap komunis.
Nah, kalau kelaut menyelam/scuba diving agar tidak dimamah oleh ikan jerung atau ke Tasek Kenyir toman, arapaima mengganas , manalah tau; bacalah:

Bismillah …
Tabbadyada …
Kunci hati engkau
Kunci mulut engkau
Kunci tangan engkau
Kau tak boleh kata dengan aku
Kau derhaka dengan Allah
Bukan aku punya kunci
Wa tab.

Kalau ditujukan kapada binatang membaham atau manusia menggigit(!) tak pasti ilmu itu jalan atau tidak. Pokoknya yakin dan tawakkal dengan Allah.

Ilmu kunci mulut itu tak perlu saya amal dalam berjinak dengan ikan tilapia kerana ia tak sebesar mana. Hanya terkena sirip belakangnya yang tajam sahaja.


Tangki disusun bertingkat kerana halaman rumah sempit


Tilapia yang besar hasil ternakan dalam kolam bekas lombong.


Dah buat bbq. Ikan potong tiga dan dilangir dengan kunyit dan garam. Sedap boleh tahan.


Menggunakan jaring untuk menangkap tilapia. Ikan akan dimasukan dalam beberapa tangki berisi air serta saluran udara diatas lori untuk dipasarkan. Harga ex-kolam RM3.80/kg

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Cukup Ricin untuk perang?

Beberapa tahun dahulu pernah berlaku huru-hara dalam gerabak kereta api di Tokyo - penumpang2 pening dan muntah (ada yang mati?) terhidu gas. Gas mengandungi ricin telah dilepaskan oleh seorang ketua agama (sesat) Jepun. Beliau ditangkap dan dipenjara kerana menggunakannya ricin sebagai biosenjata (bioweapon). Ricin akan mengeluarkan antitoxin yang merbahaya dalam badan.

Bahan kimia ricin diperolehi dari biji jarak castor, Ricinus communis nama saintifiknya. Ia berasal dari Afrika (bukan Amerika Tengah dalam posting terdahulu). Minyak castor digunakan sebagai bahan bakar dan sapu badan pada zaman firaun Mesir dulu lagi.

Kini pokok castor tumbuh meliar dikawasan tropika dan subtropika. Ia tahan lasak dikawasan lapang kurang subur maupun tandus. Harus jarak ini dimaksudkan dalam kata 'padang jarak padang terkukur.'


Kulit buah yang masak berwarna hitam

Kita boleh hasilkan biosenjata ricin dengan murah kerana terdapat banyak pokoknya disini. Tetapi bakanya kurang berhasil dan perlu menjalankan kajian untuk memilih baka yang baik.

Kegunaan biasa minyak castor ialah sebagai pemuntah (purgative) bila keracunan makanan atau kimia. Munkin di India masih digunakan sebagai bahan bakar.

Dari segi komersial castor oil sesuai sebagai pelicin enjin. Pernah Perak bercadang menanam castor secara meluas untuk tujuan tersebut. Kegunaan lain ialah dalam pengeluaran sabun, cat dan memproses kulit.


Castor yang berwarna unggu sesuai digunakan dalam landskap.

Friday, April 8, 2011

Padang jarak padang terkukur




Kiri: Buah jatropha atau jarak masak (hitam), matang (kuning); Kanan: Jarak integrasi dgn tebu.

Perumpamaan 'Seperti padang jarak padang terkukur' memberi gambaran kehancuran dimana hampir kesemua manusia mati atau tiada (lari) di arena peperangan atau mala petaka. Senjata dahulu tidak sedahsyat seperti sekarang mengunakan bom atom, peluru berpandu dsb.

Apakah jarak dimaksudkan itu 'jarak pagar (jatropha), jarak castor oil atau lain2 jenis? Kedua2 jenis jarak berasal dari Amerika Tengah/Selatan dan mengandungi minyak yang berlainan kegunaannya. Jatropha utk disel, castor oil utk pelicin (lubricant) jentera. Di Malaysia jarak castor oil yg banyak terdapat tumbuh liar dikawasan lapang dan munkin itu dimaksudkan dalam perumpamaan. Burung terkukur banyak dilihat dikawasan lapang.



Jatropha as biofuel (artikel yg saya tulis dalam Eastern Times, Sarawak, 2007)

The increasing cost of oil is much of public concern. The price shot up to more than US$80 per barrel causing many countries to hurriedly look into alternative fuel and energy sources to help ease the economic burden their populace. In this kind of situation the health and wellbeing of the lower income group will be much affected and the incidence of poverty expanded. We are perhaps staring into the reality that there may be no abatement in the rising trend of the fossil fuel because of demand due to population growth which in turn requires more energy for industrialization, transportation, utilities and just about about everything else we want to do to live. What makes it more critical is that oil is a depleting natural resource and the more conservation measures taken the longer it lasts.

The approach to exploit cleaner or green energy sources has always been on the agenda in many countries. Alternative sources or energy can be derived from hydro, solar, wind, and biomass. Many homes in parts of Europe are equipped with solar panels that generate electricity integrated to the national grid system. Plants capture the sun energy during their food making process (photosynthesis) and part of the biomass produced can in turn be exploited for energy purposes. Malaysia has developed technologies to commercially utilise palm oil, a product of processed biomass for biofuel.

Jatropha is and oil producing crop. Countries in Asia such as India, Thailand and China are ahead in research and development in the use of jatropha oil as biofuel. Malaysia has not done any concerted research on the plant although H.N. Ridley (1924) and I.H. Burkill (1966) have written notes on the plant. Perhaps we have the better choice of an oil crop to work on viz oil palm. We are more 20 years lagging behind Thailand in terms of jatropha research. Thailand has started large scale planting of jatropha at its drought stricken areas in the north east. Whereas India started massive planting (10,000 hectares) jatropha as an agroforestry crop more than two decades ago. Earlier in this century Cape Verde Islands planted 8000ha of jatropha and in 1910 exported five tonnes of the seeds to Lisbon (Portugal) and for oil extraction and soap manufacture until it stopped to do so in 1970.

Jatropha we commonly referred to is scientifically known as Jatropha curcas. It is a shrub. It can grow to 3m height under Malaysian conditions. It is a distant relative of rubber and tapioca and falls within the same family of Euphorbiaceae. Coincidently, rubber and tapioca are both of Central-South American origins. Jatropha is popularly known as ‘jarak’, and sometimes goes by the name as ‘jarak belanda’, ‘jarak pagar’, ‘jarak melaka’, ‘jarak keling’. The name jarak belanda implies that it is a non-native plant here. It was not introduced not by the Belanda (Dutch) but by the Portuguese to Malacca hence the name ‘jarak melaka’. The Portuguese also brought the plant to Africa. It was found in the Philippines before 1750.

The original home of jatropha is believed to be in Mexican-Central American region. It is drought tolerant, hardy and can be grown on marginal or poor soils, a specific niche where it does not compete for arable land. In areas threatened with desertification and soil erosion jatropha can be planted as hedge plants. In Mali, West Africa thousands of kilometers of such live hedges are found. The latex found in the leaves, stems and immature fruits deter animals to browse the plant. In Malaysia the Caringa fiery ants seems to favour the leaves to make their nests. That is another line of defense against intruders!

The stem is soft and thus easy to cutback to maintain hedge height. New branches are formed and bore fruits at the terminals. Propagation by stem cuttings is easily done to obviate the juvenility period and hence faster harvest. Seeds germinate within 10 days but plants take a longer time to get to the harvesting stage. In a small scale test planting as hedge using 0.5m cuttings direct onto very sandy, infertile used tin mining soil carried out the author, the survival rate was less than 50%. Short branches that grew from the growing produced few fruits within several months.

An enterprising concern announced in the papers a few days ago to go into commercial planting of jatropha in the West Indies to produce the seed oil for biofuel and other downstream activities. The pressed cake left after the oil extraction has about 3.5% nitrogen content and can be used as organic manure. It is toxic (mainly due to curcin, a chemical close to that of ricin of castor oil) for animal feed unless further treatment is done. Apart for the plant has insecticidal and medicinal properties - the oil as a purgative, the leaves as antiseptic, and latex to arrest bleeding. Children in villages used to blow bubbles using the latex froths from the stems and leaves. The author can testify to some of these properties after having had first hand experience in using or being treated with the leaves and latex.

The jatropha seeds when pressed hydraulically produce about 35% oil. The kernel within the shell of the seed contains much of the oil yielding to more than 50%. Report of a yield trial comparing several cultivars in India (1996) indicated that jatropha can yield 1800kg of seeds/hectare which is equivalent to about 60kg of oil produced. A recent visit by a group from Sarawak led by the Land Development Minister to China says that research yield of 3 tonnes of oil per hectare can be obtained. There is a wide difference between the two yield reports. This be due to many factors such as differences in soil and climatic conditions and are the technological applications - varieties, cultural practices, oil extraction methods (via chemical means for example) etc.

As of now our information on jatropha are based from outside or secondhand sources – reports, visits, literatures, internet and media. As a guide a publication entitled ‘ Physic Nut, Jatropha curcas L. published by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome in 1996 can be a good source of information to start with. As advised by the Chief Minister it is appropriate to conduct scientific and plot trials before going into larger scale planting in Sarawak. Factors such as suitability to the soil and climatic conditions, yielding capacity, the planting density, pruning regime, fertilizer requirement, oil extraction are some of the unknowns to be settled and conjectures to be verified.

In the many years I have been in Sarawak I have not come across a single plant of jatropha. In Sabah a few hedge plants were observed along the roadside close to Lahad Datu. Jatropha plants found in Sabah are likely from the Philippines initially . Rainfall averages indicate that areas around Tawau and Kota Kinabalu have drier months from January to April (93 – 129mm/month) whereas Kuching, Bintulu and Miri do not have that marked tendency meaning that their rainfall patterns are fairly uniform through the year. For higher seed yield, the 3-4 months of dry period is necessary to restrict vegetative growth and allow food partitioning for fruit development. This is also the case with mango fruiting. Apart from the dry period treatment, pruning and cutback can also be an effective cultural practice to reduce vegetative growth and stimulate flowering. In rainy, low lying areas or the wetland/peatland the jatropha roots being quite tender may not be able withstand the soaky grounds.

As a plant breeder, the first step I would take towards crop development is to collect many representative types/varieties of jatropha within and outside the country and put them to field trials to determine seed yield and oil quality. From there pick the top few ones and further test their performance at several sites of varied soil and climatic conditions. The initial selection process for high yield may take at least five years. It must be remembered that the variety that yield well in China for example may perform dismally here. A strategy to reduce risk in getting into a new crop like jatropha is to incorporate it in an agroforestry multi-tiered cropping system in combination with profitable annual and perennial crops, food and non-food types. Although the plant is shade tolerant sufficient sunlight must be given to obtain the desired seed yield.

Monday, April 4, 2011

Tilapia dan jatropha

Ikan Tilapia:
Ikan tilapia tahan lasak dan mudah membiak dalam tasik bekas lombong di Perak. Ia sedap digoreng, masak asam manis dan buat pekasam. Sebulan lalu saya cuba menjala di tasik, alangkah terperanjatnya dapat hingga 15 ekor ikan tilapia sebesar 2-3 jari sekali tebar. Hampir tiap hari pergi menjala ditasik tersebut. Terfikir bagaimana hendak membelanya dalam tangki.

Sedang mencuba menggunakan tangki plastik biru 180m panjang x 1m lebar x 6m dalam (RM400) dimuatkan 200 ekor anak ikan tilapia. Tangki diisi dengan air paip dan/atau tadahan air hujan (jimat) sedalam 10-15cm. Kalau air melebihi sukar melihat ikan mati selain membazir terutama bila menukar air. Satu pam akuarium 40watt (RM30) digunakan dalam tangki untuk pengudaraan ikan. Tanpa pam ikan akan mati. Pam akan rosak kira dibiarkan operasi diluar tanpa air. Dua pam rosak kerana saya berbuat begitu.

Air diganti selang 2-3 hari. Tangki ada saluran keluar di bahagian bawah. Air kotoran mengandungi tahi ikan dan lebihan makanan digunakan menyiram tanaman.

Makanan pellet (RM50/20kg bag) dan hampas kelapa segenggam tiap satu diberi 3 kali/hari.

Saya mengguna mata jala 1 inci diperbuat dari tangsi. Sejam menjala boleh dapat 100 ekor dan sarat untuk masukan ikan dalam 2 baldi berisi air dan perlu cepat bawa balik dimasukan dalam tangki. Ada juga dapat tilapia besar 5 jari boleh dijual RM5/kg.

Jatropha:
Jarak atau jatropha berasal dari Amerika Tengah/Selatan dan dibawa ke Timur melalui Filipina oleh penjajah Sepanyol. Di Malaysia popular ditanam sebagai pagar hidup kerana mudah tumbuh dari biji atau keratan, tahan lasak ditanah kurang subur, ternakan tidak makan daunnya, pokok tidak merimbun. Orang kampung gunakan getahnya untuk bekukan darah luka, daun dipanggang dan lekatkan pd perut bayi untuk hilangkan angin.

Thailand, Indonesia, Cina maju dalam penyelidikan jatropha sebagai biodisel - green energy. Malaysia mewah dengan minyak galian dan kelapa sawit sebab itu kurang perhatian untuk memajukan tanaman jarak. Mesin untuk ekstrak minyak boleh import dari Indonesia atau fabrikasi disini.

Keratan pohon jarak sepanjang 2 kaki mudah berakar dan boleh ditanam terus dibuat pagar kebun. Setelah 6 bulan buah sebesar ibu jari, kulit berwarna hijau menjadi kuning dan kemudian masak hitam dan dikutip. Tiap buah mengandungi 3 biji yang di press untuk mendapatkan minyak diguna terus sebagai biodisel.

Cara lain pembiakkan ialah melaui biji. Biji disemai dalam kotak styrofoam tumbuh dalam 1 minggu. Sebulan kemudian dialih dalam polybag dan tanam dikebun bila berumur 3 bulan. Atau anak benih dibiarkan dlm kotak dan bila berumur 3 bln di tanam terus (bare root) dalam kebun bila ada hujan. Pokok berumur 1 tahun akan mula mengeluarkan buah.

Tanaman secara meluas nampaknya belum menggalakan kerana masalah pasaran dari segi harga dan permintaan. Kalau ditanam pada tanah tanah subur pokok jarak akan gila daun dan kurang buah. Oleh itu ia sesuai pd tanah yang kurang subur. Tanam dalam barisan berpasangan 1.5m x 1.5m, dan 2.5m antara pasangan baris. Dari segi ekonomik jarak elok ditanam secara integrasi dengan tanaman lain seperti nenas, tebu, roselle, bende.

SAVE sedang mengumpul baka untuk pilihan. Kami sedia khidmat nasihat dan mengirim tempahan biji jarak kpd yang berminat. Beri alamat serta postal order/money order/cek atau masuk no. akaun 3994791524 Public Bank sebanyak RM10 kapada: Dr Shaharudin Saamin, Sustainable Living Institute (SAVE), 3 Laluan Desa Tronoh Indah 5, 31750 Tronoh, Perak. Tel: 013 3763858; email: shaharudin_saamin@hotmail.com.