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Monday, November 30, 2015

GRAVESTONES OF THE ARCHIPELAGO


The history of the Malay empires (Majapahit, Srivijaya, Melaka, Rhiau ...) in the Archipelago are fairly well documented but not all of them. What remains are some markings of those empire builders as gravestones and other artefacts of historical value that help link events, tribulations, progression and finally demise. 












Kerisek, Patani






Saturday, November 28, 2015

SUNDAY NOSTALGIA - THE BEATLES


One of my early postings quite long ago was on John Lennon. I found (1993?) the inside of the hard cover page of an old register book for tourists visiting Cameron Highlands signed by John Lennon, 5 Liverpool. 

For a while I thought that John Lennon was really in Cameron Highlands but it could not be true. Most likely, a visitor had done it for fun. (I was posted to Cameron Highlands twice, 1973 and 1990-1996).













Friday, November 27, 2015

REMEDIES FOR THE SICK - POLYNESIA


Islanders in the South Pacific (Oceania), geographically isolated from land masses must depend on traditional knowledge inherited through generations, natural resources, and ingenuity for survival, livelihood and health. 

Polynesian group of islands to the right, Micronesia top left, Melanesia bottom left  (fig. below).

Sea food and coconut (known as Tree of Life) are abundant around/on the islands. Their main worry is to cure sicknesses if not attended early enough can be debilitating and bring death.

Polynesian traditional healer using herbal medicine (pic).

Fortunately, there are  found much diversity of medicinal plants on the islands for use to cure illnesses. It is interesting to note that 17% of the medicinal plants of Polynesia are used in Western medicine.

Remedy for sick children.

Morinda citrifolia - noni (Oceania), mengkudu (Malay)

Thursday, November 26, 2015

11,000 YEARS AGO - THE PERAK MAN


The first human wave of migration to the East is postulated to begin 150,000 years ago from Africa through the Red Sea (80,000 years ago), Yemen, Indian subcontinent, the Malay Peninsula (61,000-70,000 years ago), Australia and spread elsewhere.



Identity of the Perak Man, 10,000-11,000 years ago (Lenggong Museum, Perak).



Apparently, the remains of the Perak Man show deformities of skeletal structure.




Recorded history of later migration from Yunnan that reached the Malay Peninsula c. 4000 years ago.



Settlement at Harimau (Tiger) Cave, north Perak (green square).



The aborigines,  Orang Asli later day inhabitants.

Orang Asli cave dwellers.

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

MALAY TRAITOR IN THE MIDDLE KINGDOM



The arsehole you know who, is a traitor to the motherland.



The Union Jack down, in comes the Middle Kingdom via 1MDB's fiasco.




Tuesday, November 24, 2015

NAJIB, "INCAPABLE, WORTHLESS COW" IS DOOMED


Well, well, the Ketua Bahagians have been fattened up (like fattening cows before slaughter) by Najib from his 2.6billion.  The KBs will not reveal how much they get for they surely want to keep the lion share. They want to minimise sharing the loot with the Cawangans. Greed breeds greed.

Ketua Cawangans will get tit-bits if at all. They do the donkey's work with the grassroots but get meagre sums. They have committee members to take care too. They bear the brunt of complaints, displeasures, curses from the grassroots.

Many of the KBs are ball lickers, corrupt, arrogant and determine to hold their posts as if for life. The KB Batu Gajah is a case in point. Now the KCs  are getting tired of toeing the line and want to challenge them. 

We have a leader who is a daylight liar and robber. The 2.6billion in the pocket is to fight IS, then for UMNO. The 1MDB fiasco revealed many more lies.

The good conscience of many of the KCs are taking over their inertia. They want change and hopefully have the will to bring Najib down. Those who are paranoid like Zahid would smell of dalang(s) that provoke the KCs.

Bravo, bravo.


(Tukar Tiub's blog)

An investigation will be carried out over allegations that a senior officer in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) made derogatory remarks about Najib Razak at a dinner recently, said  Ahmad Maslan.

The deputy minister told the Dewan Rakyat today that the issue was brought to the attention of the minister, who said he would check the allegation. Tiong King Sing (BN-Bintulu), in debating Budget 2016 earlier, said the official had criticised the prime minister, saying he was an“incapable, worthless cow” in the presence of foreign dignitaries and local corporate captains.

This was posted in Facebook by someone who was present when the official reportedly made the remark. Ahmad Maslan, in wrapping up the budget debate at committee stage for the ministry, said the matter had been communicated to the minister.


 At this juncture, Tiong stood up to tell the deputy minister that the complaint against the ministry’s senior official was serious and should be speedily dealt with. – November 23, 2015. 

  - See more at: http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/malaysia/article/probe-into-officer-who-allegedly-called-najib-worthless-cow-says-ahmad-masl#sthash.RUGK8Sfk.dpuf

(dinturtle's blog)

108 Ketua2 Cawangan Johor Pula Protes Malam Ini ! TERBAIK !! ( video )

Monday, November 23, 20150 comments

Dibawah adalah video sidang media majlis Solidariti Ketua2 dan Ketua2 Pemuda Cawangan dari 108 cawangan dari 7 bahagian Umno di Negeri Johor yang berlangsung malam tadi di Johor Baru.

Tuan2 dan Puan2 sekelian,

Menyedari bahawa Umno berada  di dalam situasi yang amat rumit, kami ketua2 cawangan Umno dari 6 bahagian di negeri Johor telah mengambil langkah2  bagi mencegah parti politik keramat ini menjadi bahan sejarah yang tidak mempunyai sebarang erti.

Begitu banyak sekali jasa yang telah ditaburkan oleh Umno kepada negara dan bangsa. Kami tidak rela melihat ianya menjadi mangsa keadaan pihak tertentu yang akhirnya menjadi momokan sepanjang zaman,

Bersuaranya kami bukanlah mencari publisiti murahan atau meletakkan parti tercinta ini dalam situasi yang merumitkan. Bersuaranya kami adalah ekoran cetusan rasa ikhlas dan tanggungjawab yang tinggi. Kami tidak mempunyai niat buruk. Kami juga tidak dibayar dengan wang oleh mana2 individu. 

Wang ringgit tidak penting buat kami. Apa yang lebih penting dan bermakna adalah nasib dan masadepan anak cucu kita. Kami tidak rela Presiden atau orang2 Presiden memperjudikan masa depan anak cucu kami.

Bangsa Malaysia mengharapkan pembelaan dan kami tidak rela melihat rayuan mereka diabaikan begitu saja. Ahli2 parti mengharapkan keberanian dari kami untuk bersuara. Kami dengan ini menyahut seruan dari mereka. 

Perjumpaan kami pada hari ini tidak didalangi oleh sesiapa. Malahan kami tidak berjuang untuk sesiapa kecuali untuk generasi masa depan dan agama.

Sehubungan dengan perjumpaan kami pada malam ini telah membuat ketetapan seperti berikut -

1- Presiden Umno perlu meletak jawatan kerana telah banyak kerosakan yang dilakukannya.

2- Jangan merosakkan lagi parti dengan mengambil langkah dengan menggantung keahlian mana2 pemimpin kerana mengkritik Presiden dalam pengurusan parti.

3- Pemilihan parti perlu dijalankan dan jangan ditangguhkan.

 Sekian.


(Refer Sakmongkol AK47)

Let’s look at another of his corrupting ways, perfecting a reward system that favours the politically connected, did not do well in school etc.
The building for our permanent representative to the UN is located in New York. Its address is 313 E 43rd St, New York, NY 10017, United States. It’s also near to the permanent mission buildings of several other countries- Dutch, Armenia and so forth. It’s also near the Westin Hotel New York.
The building housing our permanent representative to the UN will undergo massive renovation works very soon. It will be a multimillion Dollar project. Unfortunately it is nothing near the RM2.6 billion figure. That is a pity- it would have been a good source to profit and earn gargantuan commissions.
Guess who will be the contractor?
Even this chicken feed business does not escape the attention of PM Najib. This small business has been ordered to be given to the PM’s son in law, Daniyar Nazarbayev.  There was no tender, open or controlled open.  I hope this news is not true. If it were, it affirms how insatiable and rapacious Najib is.  Even small business he wants them all.



Zahid main hidung bukan otak! Kena cium bontot Najib hari2. He is the Dalang Ciumer, a paranoid kaki cium disposition. He has to play the game to survive the political morass. Deep in his heart he knows Najib is in the twilight zone.



Sunday, November 22, 2015

NAJIB-ROSMAH-MAIRA MAFIA CONNECTION


Hell, after Altantuya, Bala, Najadi, Khalil, Morais, who's next? Show no mercy, mama.

The mafia connection in New York warned - watch out, we'll git you! 

From the Godfather, just call my name. Damn it, those suckers know I have 2.6billion. Here's the money to pay for the bags. Now, fuck off!




(adapted from Tukar Tiub)



No mercy from me, Najib’s in-law told terrified Hermes bag seller

Bella Belkin, the businesswoman who was trying to recover payment for Hermes bags bought by Maira Nazarbayeva, was terrified when the latter dropped Prime Minister Najib Abdul Razak’s name and threatened to harm her.
Bella’s family was threatened by Maira at least three times since June this year, according to court documents obtained by Malaysiakini.
“As a result of Maira’s repeated threats to both Bella and (husband) Edward Belkin, the Belkins feared for their safety and for the safety of their children,” it said.
According to the documents filed with the Southern District of New York, the first threat, where Najib’s name was used, happened during a telephone conversation on June 16 this year.
The document claimed Maira said: “You know who my son is! He is son-in-law of the prime minister of Malaysia.
“Do you know what we can do to you and your family? I will hurt you. I will hurt you and your family if you sue me.
“You know what I can do to you and what I am capable of. You know what I did in Kazakhstan and I will do it here to you.”
Maira’s son, Daniyar Kessikbayev, is married to Najib’s daughter Nooryana Najwa.
Bella, who is Samilor Enterprises president, was trying to recover payment for seven Hermes banks worth US$401,912.50 (RM1.72 million) bought on Sept 15, 2014 and Jan 20, 2015.
‘Real possibly of threats being carried out’
The court filing, made through law firm Lark B Stumer & Associates, said Bella believed in Maira’s threats were real due to the latter’s track record.
“This threat terrified Bella because at that time Bella recently learned what Maira was capable of and was already accused of doing in Kazakhstan.
“By way of pertinent background, upon information and belief, Maira is currently or was an international fugitive wanted by the Kazakhstan police and Interpol for various crimes, including kidnapping, use of threats of physical harm to extract funds from business associates and using threat to force another person to transfer real property to the name of a family associate.
“Numerous articles written about Maira reveal that she has ability and propensity to carry out her threats of physical harm against Bella and her family,” it said.
Three months later, Bella’s husband Edward contacted Maira by telephone to try and defuse the tension.
Edward then met Maira and Daniyar on Sept 30 at their home in Alpine, New Jersey.
“During the meeting, Edward asked Maira if she was able to pay the outstanding balance and Maira immediately threatened. ‘I am not paying you anything. You know what I can do. You know what I did in Kazakhstan. I will hurt you and your family’,” read the document.
‘You don’t bother me and I won’t bother you’
The court filing said Maira issued a third threat against the Belkins in a series of text messages on Oct 27 after she found out that they intended to sue her.
One of the text messages read: “You don’t bother me and I won’t bother you, now I am quiet, but you will not calm down, don't expect mercy from me, it will cost you a lot.”

Thursday, November 19, 2015

NAJIB THE REAL ENEMY NOT I.S.


All of a sudden there are IS terror cells around us. We don't hear them before. The police knowingly keep quiet about it then. The IGP should also investigate possible gun-running in Nilai.

Notwithstanding the danger of the IS members to the country, the real enemy of the state is Najib. Why in the first place he said that the RM2.6billion in his account is to fight IS? He was inviting trouble (to himself) wanting to be a hero! Why, the government has  yet to allocate fund to fight IS then.

Perhaps the IGP purposely blow up the IS issue as a scare tactic to make it appear that the country is under serious threat. More so, the cabinet members are the prime target. It is as if those suckers matter more than the whole rakyat. Generalisimo Jakim YaPIEM Golfo Khir Fuckeda is one of those morons.

It smells of a diversionary stratagem to dampen the furor of the 1MDB scandal thus giving Najib time to recoup and the rakyat to cool down.    

Come Hisham, the moderates are being targetted by IS he said. If that is true then no one is safe. He should know that IS are extremists, they go after extremists - crusaders, corrupt leaders, failed states.

The enemy within is more dangerous than without. 

(refer Che Det, 25 Sept 2015)

6. We have been independent since 1957. We should be able to run our own country by ourself. Indeed we had been doing so for decades before Najib, and we did very well.
7. But Najib appointed several British officers as his advisers.
8. Najib appointed many foreign consultants to advise him on running the country.
9. These people cost billions of Ringgits but their advise were generally not good for the country. They knew nothing about the politics, economics and sensitivities of Malaysia. As a result the development of Malaysia has slowed down and the races are at each others throats.
10. Najib’s Government became extremely unpopular. Despite giving lots of money to the people, they rejected him in the elections of 2013. He performed worse than Abdullah, who was also rejected by the people. The Chinese rejected him totally despite his declaring himself to be their brother.
11. He antagonised the civil servants by setting up Pemandu to take over the job of the EPU. Pemandu non-Government personnel were paid very high salaries, far above the Government Salary Scheme. So annoyed were the Civil servants that a few, upon retirement joined the opposition party and stood as opposition candidates, something which never happened before.
12. The growth of the economy fell below those of the Philippines and Indonesia.
13. The currency depreciated and share prices went down badly creating problems for businesses, importers and exporters. The cost of living went up especially after the GST.
14. Then came the 1MDB scandal. A totally unnecessary fund was created which was to be financed by huge borrowings. The Government gave one million Ringgit as capital but 1MDB (1 Malaysia Development Berhad) borrowed 42 billion Ringgit from the market. It paid high interest of 5.9% and gave 10% commission to Goldman Sachs. Government never borrowed so much or paid such high rates.
15. 1MDB bought electric power plants at higher than market price. It also bought the debts of the power companies. Total cost was 18 billion Ringgit. 1 MDB lost so much money that it cannot pay the interest on the loans.
16. 1MDB bought Government land at 60 Ringgit per square foot when the real price is over RM3000 psf. Revaluing the land by 50 times, it claims its asset is bigger than its debts. This is like selling Approved Permits obtained free from the Government.
17. Then 1MDB entered into shady business with Petro Saudi as JV partner. It paid USD 1 Billion for its 40% share. Six months, later the JV was dissolved. But the USD 1 Billion together with another 700 million USD were converted to a loan to Petro Saudi. The money has now disappeared.
18. The only assets that 1MDB has are the power plants and the land in Kuala Lumpur. More than RM20 Billion of the 42 billion Ringgit cannot be traced or accounted for.
19. Then suddenly the Wall Street Journal reported that Najib had in his private account at the Arab Malaysian Bank USD700 million (amounting to RM2.6 billion at that time)
20. No PM of Malaysia or UMNO President can have that much money. All donations to UMNO are normally received and banked by the UMNO Treasurer. All assets are placed under the name of three trustees.
21. Never in the history of UMNO had there been more than RM250 million in cash. All other assets are in the form of shares, land and buildings. The President is duty-bound to hand over all donations to the treasurer for banking. The President never had UMNO money or money donated to UMNO for elections for example in his private account. There is no provision for UMNO accounts to be operated by the President.
22. Najib and his wife are well-known for a lavish life-style. Obviously millions were spent on the betrothal and numerous wedding ceremonies in Malaysia and Kazakhstan. Najib’s step-son spent hundreds of millions of dollars buying property in London, New York and California. He also financed the production of a Hollywood movie, “The Wolf of Wall Street” with over 100 million US Dollars.
23. On Najib’s salary as Prime Minister, it is impossible for him to spend millions on all these. A statement by the PMO claimed that the money for the foreign properties and film was inherited. It is impossible for Tun Razak, or Haji Noah or Rosmah’s father to have and leave hundreds of millions of Ringgit. They were not even known as millionaires. Najib’s brothers refuted the claim.
24. So where did the money come from. Najib claims the 2.6 billion Ringgit was donated to him by an Arab. This is ridiculous. Nobody ever gives that amount of money to anyone. And Najib cannot prove that the Arab had given the money.
25. And so a special task force consisting of the A.G, the Anti Corruption
Commissioner, the Governor of Bank Negara and the Inspector-General of Police was set up to investigate the source of the RM 2.6 billion in Najib’s private account at The Arab Malaysian Bank.
26. The Public Accounts Committee of the Dewan Rakyat was also investigating what happened to the RM 42 billion Ringgit borrowed by 1MDB. So was the Auditor General.
27. Suddenly Najib sacked the Attorney-General claiming he was sick. The A.G denied he was sick. There was no certificate by doctors to prove he was sick. Najib had no right to claim that the A.G was sick.
28. At the same time the head of the Anti-Corruption Commission was said to have gone on leave. The Governor of Bank Negara was silent. Later she stated she was afraid of being arrested.
29. Two of the Government members of the PAC were made deputy ministers and another two given other jobs. They could not carry on their work as PAC members. The PAC was without a Chairman and its investigation of 1MDB has stopped.
30. Two members of the Anti-Corruption Commission were arrested, released and transferred to the PM’s office. After complaints were made they were transferred back to the Commission.
31. The assistant head of the Special Branch was transferred out. He then made a strong statement against his transfer.
32. People who spoke about 1MDB and the 2.6 billion Ringgit in Najib’s account, or reported on it were arrested, have their passports confiscated and threatened by the police with questioning. It seems that any question about 1MDB and Najib’s 2.6 billion constitute acts to undermine democracy and to topple a properly elected Government. People can be detained for up to 28 days without trial under a new law which is meant for acts of terrorism. Talking about 1MDB and Najib’s 2.6 billion seems to constitute acts of terrorism. Najib forgets that he was involved in the removal of his predecessor who was also elected democratically.
33. Then came a bombshell. Al Jazeera screened the story of the murder of the Mongolian girl Altantuya. It was clear from the story that Najib has something to do with the murder.
34. Many Malaysians refuse to believe it. But people all over the world believe the story. It has become an international scandal. It has brought shame to Malaysia. Everywhere one goes, one is asked, “What has happened to Malaysia”.
35. Between 1MDB, the 2.6 billion Ringgit in Najib’s private account and the murder of Altantuya, Malaysia’s good name has been totally blackened. Never before has Malaysia become so disgraced by its own Prime Minister. Never before have people looked down upon this country. Never before have Malaysians been so ashamed of their country.
36. Najib has paid people to demonstrate in the streets in support of him. He has of course made it illegal for people to demonstrate for his removal.
37. If the currency and the economy is to recover, Najib must cease to be Prime Minister of Malaysia. Malaysians must demand for Najib’s removal. It is totally democratic to demand for his removal. The actions he has taken to detain people for holding rallies to demand for his removal is what is undemocratic and against the laws of this country.
38. I call upon all Malaysians to demand that Najib allows the investigation against him to be carried out by independent people not appointed by him. Najib must allow due legal process to go on. If it is found that he had done illegal things he should be made to resign.
39. Only his ceasing to be the Prime Minister of Malaysia will the economy recover, the Ringgit revalued up, and cost of living go down. Only after his removal can Malaysians stand tall again.

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

GENERALISMO JAKIM YaPIEM GOLFO KHIR FUCKEDA

(Rujuk Tukar Tiub)


BENARKAH WANG YaPEIM RM 290,000 DIGUNAKAN UNTUK PENGANJURAN KURSUS PERKAHWINAN DI PARIS YANG DIRASMIKAN OLEH TUAN HAJI JAMIL KHIR BAHAROM? 
Saya terkilan dengan keengganan YB Tuan Haji Jamil Khir Baharom untuk menjawab persoalan-persoalan yang dibangkitkan mengenai skandal Yayasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Islam Malaysia (YaPEIM) dan sebaliknya masih meneruskan ugutan untuk menyaman saya.
Maka, disini saya tampil untuk pendedahan berikutnya mengenai bagaimana wang YaPEIM telah digunakan untuk penganjuran program di Paris, Perancis yang tidak mencerminkan matlamat kebajikan dan amal jariah.
Berdasarkan bukti yang diterima oleh National Oversight and Whistleblowers (NOW), terdapat 2 buah program yang dinamakan ‘Simposium Perdana Paris: Isu Perkahwinan, Kekeluargaan, Keusahawanan dan Pengurusan’ telah diadakan secara berturut-turut di Paris pada hujung tahun 2014 dan awal tahun 2015.
Aktiviti pertama dibiayai menggunakan wang YaPEIM dikenali sebagai ‘Kursus dan Kembara Santun 2014 Kelab Santun Eropah’ yang berlangsung bagi tempoh 20 Disember 2014 sehingga 28 Disember 2014 dengan jumlah kos RM 176,500.00.
Pembiayaan kedua pula dibuat atas nama ‘Program Transformasi Warga Santun (TAMRIN) Kelab Santun Eropah’ yang berlangsung bagi tempoh 29 Disember 2014 sehingga 3 Januari 2015 dengan jumlah kos RM 113,500.00.
 Kedua-dua program ini dikatakan hanya melibatkan 100 orang peserta iaitu terdiri rakyat Malaysia yang belajar atau menetap di Paris.
Manakala, jumlah keseluruhan wang YaPEIM yang telah diambil dan dibayar melalui Yayasan Pembangunan Anak Yatim/Miskin (PEMANGKIN) untuk kedua-dua program ini adalah RM 290,000.00.
Berdasarkan fakta-fakta yang dikemukakan,
1.      Benarkah kedua-dua program ini telah dirasmikan oleh Menteri di Jabatan Perdana Menteri, Tuan Haji  Jamil Khir Baharom?
 2.      Apakah kewajaran menggunakan wang YaPEIM bagi penganjuran Kursus Perkahwinan, Kekeluargaan, Keusahawanan dan Pengurusan di Paris dengan kos RM 290,000 yang berlangsung selama 14 hari atau 2 minggu di Paris, Perancis?
 3.      Mengapa dana YaPEIM digunakan untuk penganjuran kursus ini dan dibayar melalui Yayasan Pembangunan Anak Yatim/Miskin (PEMANGKIN)?
 4.      Tidak adakah anak yatim atau miskin di Malaysia ini yang lebih layak dan memerlukan untuk dibantu oleh YaPEIM?
Jika Tuan Haji  Jamil Khir beranggapan penggunaan wang YaPEIM RM 290,000 untuk penganjuran program di Paris dan sebelum ini RM 590,000 di Amerika Syarikat tidak salah kerana mengikut prosedur, ini akan menimbulkan persoalan mengenai intergriti dan moral beliau yang membiarkan pembaziran ini berlaku sedangkan beliau adalah Menteri yang bertanggungjawab.
Saya yakin lebih setengah juta rakyat Malaysia yang membuat potongan gaji tiap-tiap bulan untuk didermakan kepada YaPEIM adalah untuk tujuan amal jariah dan kebajikan, bukan dibelanjakan untuk penganjuran program-program di luar negara.
Nasihat saya kepada beliau selaku Menteri Hal Ehwal Islam, jawablah persoalan-persoalan ini dengan rakyat di luar sana dan bukan dengan saya di mahkamah.
 AKMAL NASIR

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

FEARLESS NAJIBUGIS


Najibugis, a non-pendatang warrior is fearless. Come what may be it the Mongols, FBI, CIA, Mossad.

The sleeping sickness spread to him from Dolah. 
I wonder how those two jokers fare in defending my political career. Endless possibilities.

The dude is brazen enough to claim initially that the RM2.6billion is to fight the IS meaning that he  challenge them. Do you hear that Mahmud? His 2.6 billion is safe but frozen leaving no option for ransom. Later, he changed the story and said that an Arab sheikh donated the money.  A liar isn't it?

Mahmud (left)


Again the 2.6billion may entice IS to bring Paris to Putrajaya.



Guantanamo does not shiver him. Obama (soon to  visit here) won't put him in there for sure. Otherwise, they have to play golf within the walls of Guantanamo! 





Anyway, Obama got Najibugis in a fix where he wanted him to be. The massive dossiers on Altantuya, Scorpene, 1MDB are turning him into a puppet on the strings. As a result Malaysia is a country compromised. MH370 and MH17 are proof enough.

His religious minister played golf in New York (Najibugis in Hawaii) at government - YaPIEM expenses. Not to worry Najib won't do anything to him afraid that the fellow would turn around and say what is there 500,000 compared to 2.6billion?

So, Jihadi John don't ask him when the fuck he is going to resign. But he is ready for martyrdom. 


Sunday, November 15, 2015

FEEL THE RUBBER - THANK YOU BRAZIL


The origin of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) is Brazil. Through the dangerous and arduous efforts of Henry Wickham (and Kew Gardens), rubber from the Amazon was introduced to the east via Ceylon. H.N. Ridley was the key man who caused rubber to be planted in large scale in Malaya.

For the natural resource that greatly benefit Malaysia and the whole world in so many ways - economically, industrially, employment, welfare, technology ... thank you Brazil.


H.N. Ridley, rubber's foster-father (left), with an assistant standing
next to a rubber tree in the Singapore Botanic Gardens.

Seven-year old rubber trees. After five years trees begin to yield latex, which reaches its maximum after ten years.

Using a special knife to scrape a thin layer of bark to let the white latex to ooze and flow into a cup placed at the base of the cut.

Well maintained rubber plantation. A tapper is given a task of 400 trees to tap per day (morning).

Rubber - gender equalizer. (Some of the pictures below belong to the yesteryears).



Mosquitoes, leeches, scorpians, snakes etc are commonly found inhabiting rubber holdings. Other wild animals may roam under the shaded trees and tappers fear them.

Security during the communist insurgency.

With the aid of headlamp to make the cut when the morning light is still dim.




Gentlemanly tapper

During floods, on a small perahu to tap rubber.


Using a ladder to tap at higher trunk level.



Indonesia. Now the largest producer of rubber. Malaysia used to be at the top now third ranking in the world after Thailand.













Sri Lanka


Elsewhere (Vietnam?)