In the wake of riot and revolution in 1952 (above) King Farouk was deposed by a military coup d'etat. The real power in government was Colonel Gamal Abd al-Nasser claimed the leadership of the Arab world and for a while a new Arab spirit seemed to evoke enthusiastic response. In 1958 the proclamation of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) was received with rapture (above right), but was never a political reality. Nasser, however, remained the focus of Arab ambitions (below left), holding together disparate parties by his charisma. The 'socialism' on which Egypt embarked under his aegis greatly increased the scope of government and its centralising tendencies. As such, it may be seen as the culmination of what Muhammad 'Ali had inaugurated. At his death in 1970, his grandiose plans seemed to lie in ruins; but his successor, Sadat, retrieved some of his losses. In October 1973 Egyptian troops crossed the Suez Canal (below right), regaining part of Sinai, in a war which could be claimed to have achieved a victory.
President Gamal Abdel Nasser steps from an armored vehicle as he arrives at the site of Egyptian military manuevers in 1970.
Nasser with Soekarno, President of Indonesia.