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Wednesday, June 25, 2014


Benten at the westernmost part of Java. It was later known as Bantam during  Dutch rule who occupied the province in 1684. They first colonised Batavia in 1619.

Raja (Kiayi Mas Patih Mangkubumi) on the right, qadhi, most likely Kiayi Dukuh who came from Mekah on the left. They were deliberating in the Masjid Besar, Benten in 1596. Court  attendents looking after sheep imported from Persia by the palace.

Farmers at Benton market, 1596. The illustration is actually on non-Muslim religous followers wearing bark attire (dhluwang) who originated from Pasuruan and domiciled at 'Sura" at the foothills of Gunung Karang.

Gathering of Dewan Tinggi (High Durbar) a specifically Dewan Peperangan (War Durbar) at palace grounds, 1596.

Portuguese probably dealing for trade in Benten with the local ruler, 1596.

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